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Displaying theses 1-10 of 695 total
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M. Ahmad
Master programme: Chemistry - Analytical Sciences November 13th, 2018
Institute: HIMS Research group: Analytical Chemistry Literature thesis Supervisor: Freek Ariese
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A study on: Online analysis of photo-degradation
The goal of this literature study is find on-line spectroscopy methods that can measure photo degradation processes in the time dimension, preferably in combination with separation techniques and without any interfering with the process itself. Goals of this study are: Looking into certain aspects of photo degradation, creating criteria that spectroscopical approaches need to apply to, finding such approaches, comparing results of papers that show such methods and drawing a conclusion from the comparison.
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Scientific abstract (docx 13K)   Full text (pdf 5965K)

M.H. Bistervels
Master programme: Chemistry - Molecular Simulation and Photonics October 29th, 2018
Institute: AMOLF Research group: AMOLF - Ultrafast Spectroscopy Graduation thesis Supervisor: Huib Bakker
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A Study on Stearic acid on the water-air interface probed by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy
The interaction action of fatty acids on water is believed to play a major role in the oil yield that is obtained by water flooding oil recovery processes and one thinks that the composition of the water has a large influence in this. Conditions on the interfacial surface of two isotropic media can significantly differ from the conditions in the bulk which can lead to a very different behavior. Sum frequency generation (SFG) is a surface specific spectroscopic method that can measure the vibrational spectra between two isotropic media. The SFG output beam that is generated on a surface sample propagates on the sum of two input beams and allows to analyze direct information of the chemical species at the interface. The present work aims at the investigation of the configuration state of the deuterated carbon tail - Stearic acid (StA) on the water-air interface relative to varied system conditions, with the use of SFG spectroscopy. The condition changing in water was performed in terms of pH (3-11), salt concentration (0-2000 mM) and temperature (26-56 C). In order to gain information on the (deuterated carbon tail) carboxylic head group, the region (1800-2300 cm-1) 1400-1800 cm-1 has been probed.
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A. van Kooten Niekerk
Master programme: Chemistry - Analytical Sciences October 18th, 2018
Institute: VU / Other Research group: Biophotonics & Medical Imaging Literature thesis Supervisor: Dr. Freek Ariese
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New developments in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy – A review
The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the latest developments of novel substrates with respect to Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The topics discussed in this review are new developments in single-composition colloidal nanomaterials, multiple-composition colloidal nanomaterials, planar substrates, composite-metal substrates, SERS based sensors and hyphenated SERS methods. Overall, new morphologies for substrates have been employed as well as improvement of enhancement limiting parameters to gain more sensitivity, in some cases almost reaching single-molecule level. Also, more robust composite-metal substrates and several tuneable, facile and re-usable substrates have been employed. These developments promise a wide range of study perspectives for fundamental and industrial purposes.
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Scientific abstract (pdf 4K)   Full text (pdf 1809K)

V.A. Lachman
Master programme: Science for Energy and Sustainability - Physics / Chemistry September 25th, 2018
Institute: UvA / Other Research group: UvA / Other Graduation thesis Supervisor: Dr. N. R. Shiju
Oxidation of dicyclopentadiene with hydrogen peroxide over highly efficient niobium pentoxide catalysts
Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is an important industrial material, and its oxidation reaction has been extensively studied. Dicyclopentadiene is produced as side product of the steam cracking of C5 petroleum products such as gas oils, naphtha, and crude oil. Among these hydrocarbons, DCPD and the higher oligomers of cyclopentadiene (CPD) are the most commonly used starting materials because of their availability and low cost. Furthermore, DCPD compounds play an important role as feedstocks, as their chemical properties are useful for the development of fine chemicals. Given its wide range of applications, DCPD has numerous uses in various fields, including the rubber industry, adhesives, insulating materials, pesticides, pharmaceutical applications, and niche markets. However, the most rapidly growing markets for DCPD are those for DCPD-di-epoxy resins and their various end-use applications. This research intends to identify a selective pathway for the oxidation of DCPD with niobium pentoxide as a catalyst using a common and cheap oxidant. Additional objectives are to keep the costs of this oxidation procedure relatively low, achieve a low reaction temperature, and to use heterogeneous and recoverable cheap catalysts and abundant solvents to render the oxidation process industrially viable.
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L. Ram
Master programme: Chemistry - Analytical Sciences August 24th, 2018
Institute: HIMS Research group: Analytical Chemistry Graduation thesis Supervisor: Wim Kok
Theoretical model for flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
In this research a theoretical model has been developed for method development and optimization for reversed fill/flush modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (RFF-GC×GC). The theoretical model consists of a combination of equations for optimizing the instrumental parameters in RFF-GC×GC and optimization of columns and carrier gas flows to improve the GC×GC separation. The theoretical model needs column dimensions, carrier gas type and first-dimension column flow as input parameters and calculates all instrumental parameters, including dimensions of the collection channel and restriction capillary using resistance diagrams similar to Ohms law. It also calculates velocities and plate numbers in RFF-GC×GC separation using flow rate and plate height equations. The model described the configuration accurately enough to be a helpful tool in optimizing RFF-GC×GC analysis. With the newly developed model construction of the flow modulator is significantly simplified.
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Scientific abstract (pdf 2K)   Full text (pdf 1524K)

A.S. Abels
Master programme: Science for Energy and Sustainability - Physics / Chemistry August 22nd, 2018
Institute: Other Research group: none Graduation thesis Supervisor: prof. dr. Bas de Bruin
Heterobinuclear Organometallic Complexes: A Study of the Structure, Electronic Behaviour and Reactivity of New Low-Valent Compounds
Six new heterobimetallic Rh(I)Pt(II) complexes supported by a novel type of chelating tropPPh2 ligand were synthesised, characterised and tested in nitrous oxide activation. Heterobinuclear complex 13 proved to be the most efficient homogeneous catalyst for the hydrogenation of the greenhouse gas N2O up to date (TON = 430), producing benign water and nitrogen under mild reaction conditions. Ligand alteration at the rhodium centre led to fundamental insight into the nature of the bimetallic core: NMR and XRD studies revealed that cationic compounds contained a shorter metal-metal bond and stronger 103Rh-195Pt coupling in NMR, while neutral complexes demonstrated a longer intermetallic distance and weaker 1JRhPt coupling. Furthermore, a correlation between 195Pt satellites in 31P{1H} NMR and the intermetallic bond length was found. In these heterobimetallic systems, the platinum centre appeared to serve as a supporting ligand, donating electron density to the rhodium, which is suggested to be essential in the rhodium platinum bond.
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Scientific abstract (pdf 1K)   Full text (pdf 2930K)

R. Kools
Master programme: Chemistry - Molecular design, synthesis and catalysis August 15th, 2018
Institute: HIMS Research group: Industrial Sustainable Chemistry Literature thesis Supervisor: Prof. Gert-Jan Gruter
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CO2 sequestration and utilization in cement-based materials
To prevent human-induced climate change it is important to reduce the amount of CO2 that is emitted into the atmosphere. One way to reduce atmospheric carbon is by Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU). When CO2 is used as a feedstock, the use of fossil feedstock (with associated emissions) is avoided. This report analyzes technologies that aim to convert CO2 into valuable cement-based building materials and assesses their potential of reducing atmospheric CO2. The analyses focus on the economic viability and the environmental impact of the methods. It is found that utilization of industrial wastes to produce cement-based construction materials could make a significant environmental and can be economically feasible.
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Scientific abstract (pdf 82K)   Full text (pdf 949K)

T.R. Roose
Master programme: Chemistry - Molecular design, synthesis and catalysis August 10th, 2018
Institute: VU / Chem. & Pharm.Sc. Research group: VU Synthetic and Bio-Organic Chemistry Literature thesis Supervisor: prof. dr. R.V.A. Orru
Base-Metal Catalysed and Mediated Isocyanide Insertions
Isocyanides have demonstrated to be versatile C1 building blocks and reagents in combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry, multicomponent (MCR) chemistry and organic chemistry. The ambivalent character of isocyanides has made these reagents useful in the formation of various N-heterocycles. Until this day research is predominantly focussed on the use of isocyanides in MCR chemistry for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. However, a rather underdeveloped, but extremely useful transformation is the insertion of isocyanides into various metal-element bonds. Isocyanides are isoelectronic to carbon monoxide (CO) and show similar reactivity towards metal centres and especially towards palladium. Until this day the migratory insertion of isocyanides into Pd-C or Pd-heteroatom bonds is well established and has been applied in the synthesis of various nitrogen-containing heterocycles and fine-chemicals. However, palladium is scarce and it is desired to utilize the more abundant base metals, such as Ti, Ni, Cu, Fe and Co in order to access nitrogen enriched fine-chemicals and heterocyclic scaffolds. Currently, no comprehensive overview of the chemistry of isocyanide insertion reactions involving base metals has been published. In this literature study, the use of base metals in imidoylative transformations will be investigated and discussed.
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Y. Djaidoen
Bachelor programme: Scheikunde August 9th, 2018
Institute: HIMS Research group: Homogeneous Catalysis Graduation thesis Supervisor: dr. Tiddo J. Mooibroek
Towards artificial carbohydrate receptors
Carbohydrates are one of the most abundant molecules in nature and they have a major role in biological regulation, such as the recognition of cells. They are also known to be involved in certain malignant processes like diabetes, cancer and infections. Understanding these molecular processes and interfering in them could be exploited in biomedical research. To achieve this, detection, separation, isolation and synthesis of different carbohydrates is required. Currently, this is accomplished by expensive methods, using lectins, enzymes and classic organic synthesis. This thesis describes the synthesis towards a biomimetic artificial carbohydrate receptor.
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B. Weijers
Bachelor programme: Scheikunde August 2nd, 2018
Institute: VU / Chem. & Pharm.Sc. Research group: VU Synthetic and Bio-Organic Chemistry Graduation thesis Supervisor: Eelco Ruijter
A Novel NIS-Mediated Spirocyclization of Tryptamine Derived Isocyanides Towards Spiroindolines
Within the field of organic chemistry, scientists are always looking for new and efficient ways to create important medicines. Examples of these are compounds which may cure patients with cancer, heart diseases and viral infections. Nature is often the main source of inspiration for the design of these new medicines. Based on a molecule found in nature, a derivative is synthesized which has a biological activity similar to its natural counterpart. Thorough testing of the new compound is then performed to check if the compound contains the desired biological activity. For this research, we have made a small number of new compounds based on the amino acid tryptophan’s side chain. These compounds can, after some modifications, be used a cure for patients with thrombosis. Using a new reaction, we have successfully converted a small number of tryptophan-derivatives with moderate yield. The reaction also produced an interesting functional group in the product, which may be used in further modifications. Ultimately, we hope that our new reaction will be used by other organic and biochemists in the synthesis of natural products and new medicines.
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